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A series of naval stand-offs between Iranian speedboats and U.S. warships in the Strait of Hormuz occurred in December 2007 and January 2008. En 2000, François Lamoureux, Directeur général à l’énergie de la Commission européenne, disait avec son sens de la formule : « Si le détroit d’Ormuz est bloqué, le lendemain le monde entier ira en vélo ». Gresh, Geoffrey. Examples of these are as follows: • Coastal air defences, long-range artillery and anti-ship missiles. Il a menacé à plusieurs reprises de bloquer le détroit d’Ormuz en cas d’action militaire américaine dans la zone. Le mois suivant, des patrouilleurs iraniens tiraient des coups de semonce dans une apparente tentative d’interception d’un navire commercial battant pavillon singapourien. "Can Iran close the Strait of Hormuz?". However, since the 1979 Iranian Revolution, a significant part of Iran’s military spending has been allocated to the asymmetric warfare approach of its naval capabilities, the anti-access/ anti-denial (A2/AD) systems. [20], On 27 December 2011, Iranian Vice President Mohammad-Reza Rahimi threatened to cut off oil supply from the Strait of Hormuz should economic sanctions limit, or cut off, Iranian oil exports. During the 1970s, neither Iran or Oman attempted to impede the passage of warships through the strait, but in the 1980s, both countries asserted claims that were different from customary (old) law. [10] In July 1972, Oman also expanded its territorial sea to 12 nautical miles (22 km) by decree. Principaux ports autour du détroit d’Ormuz. On the north coast lies Iran, and on the south coast the United Arab Emirates and … Le détroit d’Ormuz, qui relie le golfe Persique au golfe d’Oman, est situé entre l’Iran et le sultanat d’Oman. The strait is about 90 nautical miles (167 km) long, with a width varying from about 52 nautical miles (96 km) to 21 nautical miles (39 km). Il est particulièrement vulnérable en raison de sa faible largeur, 50 kilomètres environ, et de sa profondeur, qui n’excède pas 60 mètres. [citation needed] [62] These capabilities are meant to prevent advanced navies or other opponents to operate in the Strait and the Persian Gulf, and would be of particular concern to the U.S.[63] In 2016, it was assessed that Iran’s military strength was weak, even compared to regional rivals. Les gardiens de la révolution, l’armée idéologique iranienne, contrôlent les opérations navales dans le Golfe. Les Etats-Unis, bien que premier producteur mondial et exportateur net de pétrole, ont ainsi importé en 2018 environ 1,4 million de barils/jour de brut ayant passé par le détroit d’Ormuz, soit 7 % de leur consommation. If Iran were to follow through on its threats to completely or partially close of the Strait, one of the world’s most strategically important maritime choke points, the most effective way would be through the use of its anti-access/area-denial capabilities. (3) At last, Iran can continue their threats of Strait closure as responses to U.S sanctions, or conduct more naval exercises, displaying their naval capabilities. Vidéo - Depuis que deux pétroliers ont été attaqués au milieu du détroit d’Ormuz, le 13 juin, la tension monte entre l’Iran et les Etats-Unis. [27] The British Government however have said that this move has been long-planned, as Daring will replace another Armilla patrol frigate. Ces incidents intervennaient après ceux du mois de mai durant lesquels quatre navires, dont deux … Malgré les tensions économiques, malgré les pressions écologiques, nous avons encore trente bonnes années devant nous. [10] Upon signing the convention in December 1982, Iran entered a declaration stating "that only states parties to the Law of the Sea Convention shall be entitled to benefit from the contractual rights created therein", including "the right of transit passage through straits used for international navigation". The lanes are separated by a two-mile-wide "median".[6]. Il est l’une des zones stratégiques les plus fébriles de la planète. The opening to the Persian Gulf was described, but not given a name, in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a 1st-century mariner's guide: At the upper end of these Calaei islands is a range of mountains called Calon, and there follows not far beyond, the mouth of the Persian Gulf, where there is much diving for the pearl-mussel. "[29], The Iranian Foreign Ministry confirmed on 16 January 2012 that it has received a letter from the United States concerning the Strait of Hormuz, "via three different channels." Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. He stated that Saudi Arabia was considering building new pipelines to Oman and Yemen, and that Iraq might revive the disused Iraq–Syria pipeline to ship crude to the Mediterranean. It provides the only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the open ocean and is one of the world's most strategically important choke points. Le détroit d'Ormuz est stratégique dans le commerce maritime du pétrole. Il est clair que les États Unis ont des preuves de ce qu'ils affirment. Enquête Depuis mai, cet étroit corridor maritime est l’un des points chauds de la planète. [37], In July 2018, Iran again made threats to close the strait. Détroit d'Ormuz : il se situe dans le golfe Arabo-Persique, au Moyen-Orient. This was the first visit by a Prime Minister of Japan in 40 years. International Security, 2008. Point de passage stratégique : lieu de circulation important pour les différents acteurs en jeu. Ould Abdelaziz a comparé le Qatar et ce qu’il a fait aux pays arabes à l’Allemagne Nazie et à ce qu’elle a occasionnée aux pays européens. Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta told troops in Texas that the United States would not tolerate Iran's closing of the strait. Il est parsemé d’îles désertiques ou peu habitées, mais d’une grande importance stratégique : les îles iraniennes d’Ormuz, et celles de Qeshm et de Larak, face à la rive iranienne de Bandar Abbas. Iran subsequently denied the accusations, calling the incident a false-flag attack. If they commit such a stupidity, Tel Aviv and U.S. shipping in the Persian Gulf will be Iran's first targets and they will be burned."[17]. [31] Gen. Martin E. Dempsey, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said this past weekend that the United States would "take action and re-open the strait", which could be accomplished only by military means, including minesweepers, warship escorts and potentially airstrikes. "Traversing the Persian Gauntlet: U.S. The United States Navy and United States Air Force in the Gulf region is far stronger than that of Iran, and while an Iranian attempt to close of the Strait can cause damage, the U.S. is able to defeat it. The battle, dubbed Operation Praying Mantis by the U.S., was launched in retaliation for the USS Samuel B. Roberts striking a mine laid in the channel by Iran on 14 April. Le détroit d’Ormuz, situé dans la zone où l’Iran a abattu jeudi 20 juin un drone militaire américain, est un point de passage stratégique pour le commerce mondial de pétrole et au cœur des tensions régionales depuis des décennies. Ainsi, le pétrole léger produit par les Etats-Unis n’est pas un substitut aux bruts lourds du Moyen-Orient. On 3 July 1988, 290 people were killed when an Iran Air Airbus A300 was shot down over the strait by the United States Navy guided missile cruiser USS Vincennes (CG-49) when it was wrongly identified as a jet fighter. The UAE is also increasing Fujairah's storage and off-loading capacities. Iranian Threats to Close the Strait of Hormuz", "Transit Passage Rights in the Strait of Hormuz and Iran’s Threats to Block the Passage of Oil Tankers", VIDEO: Iran shoots down U.S. military drone over Strait of Hormuz, List of cities, towns and villages in Hormozgan Province, South Pars/North Dome Gas-Condensate field, National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company, DESA - Iran Heavy Diesel Manufacturing Company, Seizure of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs,, Bodies of water of the United Arab Emirates, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles using infobox body of water without alt, Articles using infobox body of water without pushpin map alt, Articles using infobox body of water without image bathymetry, Articles with disputed statements from April 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2012, Articles with minor POV problems from April 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from September 2017, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2012, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mohammed Kookherdi (1997) Kookherd, an Islamic civil at Mehran river, third edition: Dubai, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 06:28. The Navy's regional commander, Vice Admiral Kevin Cosgriff, said the Iranians had "neither anti-ship missiles nor torpedoes" and he "wouldn't characterize the posture of the US 5th Fleet as afraid of these small boats".[15]. "Iran's Threat to the Strait of Hormuz: A Realist Assessment". It is widely acknowledged,[weasel words] that even a partial closure of the Strait would wreak havoc on the global oil markets and pose a severe threat to energy security. Le 12 août 2012, il entre en collision avec le pétrolier japonais MV Otowasan dans le détroit d'Ormuz. On 29 June 2008, the commander of Iran's Revolutionary Guard, Mohammad Ali Jafari, said that if either Israel or the United States attacked Iran, it would seal off the Strait of Hormuz to wreak havoc in the oil markets. 0. L’équipage de l’« USS Vincennes » avait affirmé avoir pris l’Airbus pour un chasseur iranien animé d’intentions hostiles. "Iran threatens to block Strait of Hormuz over US oil sanctions". Military and diplomatic officials still expected a strike as of 7 p.m. Thursday in retaliation for Iran shooting down an unmanned American drone. In the last week of July 2008, in the Operation Brimstone,[18] dozens of U.S. and foreign naval ships came to undergo joint exercises for possible military activity in the shallow waters off the coast of Iran. La fermeture du détroit d'Ormuz, ne serait-ce que pour une période de deux semaines, entraînerait des conséquences catastrophiques sur l'économie mondiale. This followed more ambiguous threats from Iran's oil minister and other government officials that an attack on Iran would result in turmoil in the world's oil supply. "It was shore-to-shore", said one U.S. official describing the launch, who like the others requested anonymity to discuss sensitive information. Escalada de tensión en el estrecho de Ormuz: Irán intercepta una aeronave 'espía' y EEUU le acusa de derribar uno de sus drones [22] Despite an initial 2% rise in oil prices, oil markets ultimately did not react significantly to the Iranian threat, with oil analyst Thorbjoern Bak Jensen of Global Risk Management concluding that "they cannot stop the flow for a longer period due to the amount of U.S. hardware in the area". Il est parsemé d’îles désertiques ou peu habitées, mais d’une grande importance stratégique : les îles iraniennes d’Ormuz, et celles de Qeshm et de Larak, face à la rive iranienne de Bandar Abbas. Il est particulièrement vulnérable en raison de sa faible largeur, 50 kilomètres environ, et de sa profondeur, qui n’excède pas 60 mètres. [28], On 9 January 2012, Iranian Defense Minister Ahmad Vahidi denied that Iran had ever claimed that it would close the Strait of Hormuz, saying that "the Islamic Republic of Iran is the most important provider of security in the strait... if one threatens the security of the Persian Gulf, then all are threatened. Le détroit d’Ormuz reste la voie de navigation quasi exclusive reliant les producteurs d’hydrocarbures du Moyen-Orient (Arabie saoudite, Koweït, Qatar, Emirats arabes unis, Irak et Iran) aux marchés d’Asie, d’Europe et d’Amérique du nord. Pham, J. Peter. This was presumed to be in reference to the seizure of an Iranian Tanker, Grace 1, bound for Syria in Gibraltar a few days prior. Talmadge, Caitlin. The report stated that more than 85% of these crude oil exports went to Asian markets, with Japan, India, South Korea and China the largest destinations. [43], In July 2019, a Stena Bulk Tanker, Stena Impero, sailing under a British flag, was boarded and captured by Iranian forces. Même si c’était exagéré, cela avait un sens à l’époque. Tensions between the United States and Iran have been at their height since an American surveillance drone was shot down last week by Iranian forces. Iran’s fleet of small vessels, speedboats and submarines can be used for its rapid and covert mine-laying capabilities.[63]. Quelque 76 % des exportations de brut passant par ce détroit stratégique étaient destinées l’an dernier aux pays d’Asie (en premier lieu la Chine, l’Inde, le Japon et la Corée du Sud), selon l’EIA. Although not all countries have ratified the convention,[8] most countries, including the U.S.,[9] accept these customary navigation rules as codified in the Convention. "Iran's Asymmetric Naval Warfare". In April 1959 Iran altered the legal status of the strait by expanding its territorial sea to 12 nautical miles (22 km) and declaring that it would recognize only transit by innocent passage through the newly expanded area. The court ruling allegedly ordered a fine of $3.6 million. According to a 2012 article in The Christian Science Monitor, it simulated an attempt by Iran to close the strait. Détroit d'Ormuz à Oman: le Kumzari, langue menacée de disparition 01:17. In the 10th–17th centuries AD, the Kingdom of Ormus, which seems to have given the strait its name, was located here. Position stratégique sur le Detroit d’Ormuz, hôte depuis 2009 d’une importante base militaire française à Abou Dhabi, participation militaire en 2011 au conflit en Lybie, ‘guerre’ interne depuis 2013/14 contre les Frères Musulmans, tension perpétuelle avec l’Iran et… Dubaï, Abou-Dhabi, des économies florissantes, un développement fulgurant. [14] There were no injuries, and no oil leaked from the tanker. Une possibilité serait de commencer par le détroit d’Ormuz et d’entamer un dialogue avec tous les acteurs de cette région. [63], • A significant fleet of small boats and manpower available, which can be used to manoeuvre around larger vessels in swarming (military) tactics. Further pressure on Iranian currency was added by French Foreign Minister Alain Juppé who was quoted as calling for more "strict sanctions" and urged EU countries to follow the US in freezing Iranian central bank assets and imposing an embargo on oil exports. Economically, Iran would face consequences in terms of their own dependency on oil revenues and commerce through the Strait, such as medical products and food. For our part, we are comfortable that we have in the region sufficient capabilities to honor our commitments to our friends and partners, as well as the international community." In the same article, Suzanne Maloney, an Iran expert at the Brookings Institution, said, "The expectation is that the U.S. military could address any Iranian threat relatively quickly. [2][3], A third of the world's liquefied natural gas and almost 25% of total global oil consumption passes through the strait, making it a highly important strategic location for international trade.[3][4]. Current Politics and Economics of the Middle East, 2018, p. 139-150. Foreign Affairs, 2012, p. 166-173. Again, this had implication playing out in the Strait of Hormuz, as Iranian threats of Strait closure was put forward in April 2019. The flotilla included three American aircraft carriers (the USS Carl Vinson, the USS Enterprise and USS Abraham Lincoln) and three destroyers (USS Momsen, USS Sterett, USS Halsey), seven British warships, including the destroyer HMS Daring and a number of Type 23 frigates (HMS Westminster, HMS Argyll, HMS Somerset and HMS St Albans), and a French warship, the frigate La Motte-Picquet .[34]. [23], On 3 January 2012, Iran threatened to take action if the U.S. Navy moves an aircraft carrier back into the Persian Gulf. Pour les pays consommateurs, il paraît difficile de trouver une alternative, en volume comme en qualité, aux bruts extraits de la région du Golfe. Les récentes attaques de tankers en mer d’Oman puis l’épisode du drone américain abattu attisent le spectre de perturbations significatives du trafic et de déstabilisation du marché pétrolier : le cours du baril de WTI s’est ainsi envolé de quelque 6 % jeudi à New York. [38] Iran's Revolutionary Guards reported they were ready to carry out the action if required. The Iranian Navy Commander, Rear Admiral Habibollah Sayyari, stated that the strait would not be closed during the exercise; Iranian forces could easily accomplish that but such a decision must be made at a political level. Sputnik France 33,279 views. [64] The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran have a number of these capabilities available, and in short reach of the Strait. [40], On 22 April 2019, the U.S. ended the oil waivers, which allowed some of Iran’s customers to import Iranian oil, without risking financial penalties as part of the U.S. economic sanctions against Iran. Plus de 500 navires avaient été détruits ou endommagés. Atta Kenare, AFP . [19], On 20 March 2009, United States Navy Los Angeles-class submarine USS Hartford collided with the San Antonio-class amphibious transport dock USS New Orleans in the strait. Le détroit d’Ormuz, qui relie le golfe Persique au golfe d’Oman, est situé entre l’Iran et le sultanat d’Oman. News", "Royal Navy sends its mightiest ship to take on the Iranian show of force in the Gulf", "U.S. Si l’Arabie saoudite et les Emirats ont établi un réseau d’oléoducs pour contourner le détroit, ces voies alternatives ne convoient que des volumes limités (3 millions de barils/jour en 2018, pour une capacité totale de 6,8 millions) et elles ne sont pas épargnées, comme l’a montré en mai l’attaque d’un oléoduc saoudien par des rebelles yéménites. [41], On the morning of 13 June 2019, the oil tankers Front Altair and Kokuka Courageous were both rocked by explosions shortly before dawn, the crew of the latter reported seeing a flying object strike the ship; the crew were rescued by the destroyer USS Bainbridge while the crew of the Front Altair were rescued by Iranian ships. Regain de tension dans le détroit d’Ormuz. Pham, J. Peter. (2) Harassment of tanker traffic and damage to the infrastructure, as it was seen in the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. [32], By 23 January, a flotilla had been established by countries opposing Iran's threats to close the Hormuz Strait. "Iran's Military Capability: The Structure and Strength of Forces". At the upper end of this gulf there is a market-town designated by law called Apologus, situated near Charaex Spasini and the River Euphrates. Citing looming American sanctions after the U.S withdrew from the JCPOA deal earlier in the year. Saeed Kamali Dehghan. Additionally, a closing of the Strait would also have severe consequences for Iran itself. Aljazeera, 2019. [10] Thus, by mid-1972, the Strait of Hormuz was completely "closed" by the combined territorial waters of Iran and Oman. Au sommaire cette semaine, l'escalade militaire dans le détroit d'Ormuz. International Security, 2009, p. 190-198. États-Unis/Iran : nouvelles tensions dans le détroit d'Ormuz Depuis jeudi 13 juin et l'attaque de deux pétroliers, les tensions sont vives dans le golfe d'Oman. [30] The United States had previously announced its intention to warn Iran that closing the Strait of Hormuz is a "red line" that would provoke an American response. (1) A full closure of the Strait, which is an immense threat to global oil markets, and would likely result in a significant rise in oil prices. He indicated that tensions involving the Strait of Hormuz are leading those currently dependent on shipments from the Persian Gulf to find alternative shipping capabilities. [39], In August 2018, Iran test-fired a ballistic missile for the first time in 2018. Vous avez choisi de ne pas accepter le dépôt de cookies, notamment les cookies de publicité personnalisée. Haghshenass, Fariborz. Nous le savons, la fin des années pétrole débouchera forcément sur une guerre. Yet another reading of the tension in the Strait of Hormuz is possible. [70], In July 2012, the UAE began using the new Habshan–Fujairah oil pipeline from the Habshan fields in Abu Dhabi to the Fujairah oil terminal on the Gulf of Oman, effectively bypassing the Strait of Hormuz. Insight Turkey, 2019, p. 183-214. The United States and the Middle East". Respectivement capitale économique et politique notoires des Emirats, ce … If Iran is to block the maritime traffic through the Strait, the violation of international norms and damage to the global economy would likely end up in international support to the U.S. acting against Iran. Upon ratifying UNCLOS in August 1989, Oman submitted declarations confirming its 1981 royal decree that only innocent passage is permitted through its territorial sea. ( Comme pour les armes chimiques fabriqués par les Irakiens). Policy Focus, 2008. L’Iran, qui se considère comme le gardien du Golfe, dénonce régulièrement la présence de forces étrangères dans la région, notamment la Cinquième flotte des Etats-Unis, stationnée à Bahreïn. The resemblance of this word with the name of the Zoroastrian god هرمز Hormoz (a variant of Ahura Mazda) has resulted in the popular belief[citation needed][neutrality is disputed] that these words are related. As of 11 August 2008, more than 40 U.S. and allied ships reportedly were en route to the Strait of Hormuz. [62], • Naval mine-laying capabilities. These small attack crafts can be armed with machine guns, torpedoes and anti-ship missiles. [21] A U.S. Fifth Fleet spokeswoman said in response that the Fleet was "always ready to counter malevolent actions", whilst Admiral Habibollah Sayyari of the Iranian navy claimed that cutting off oil shipments would be "easy". [citation needed], The U.S. led sanctions may be "beginning to bite" as Iranian currency has recently lost some 12% of its value. The Guardian, 2018. [66][63] A key interest to the U.S. in the Persian Gulf, is the free flow of oil and natural gas through the Strait of Hormuz. A senior member of Iran's parliament said that the Islamic Republic would close the entry point to the Persian Gulf if new sanctions block its oil exports. One U.S. carrier battle group from Japan would complement the two which are already in the Persian Gulf, for a total of five battle groups, not including the submarines. le deuxième verrou stratégique du commerce maritime c'est le détroit d'ormuz large d'une trentaine de kilomètres ce des trois voies transiter trente pourcent du pétrole mondial il est sous administration conjointe du sultanat d'oman et de l'iran en cas de crise majeure avec les puissances occidentales l'iran pourrait facilement prendre le contrôle du détroit et déstabiliser ainsi le commerce mondial depuis le … bottom-moored contact mines; moored and bottom-influence mines; drifting mines and remotely controlled mines. To traverse the Strait, ships pass through the territorial waters of Iran and Oman under the transit passage provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Ne pas oublier que les USA sont auto-producteur de 80% de leur consommation de pétrole, ils sont plus gros producteur que l Arabie Saoudite et seront autosuffisants dans quelques années. [56], In December 2011, Iran's navy began a ten-day exercise in international waters along the strait. According to the officials, the anti-ship Fateh-110 Mod 3 flew over 100 miles on a flight path over the Strait of Hormuz to a test range in the Iranian desert. In the article, Iran's strategy beats the materially superior US armed forces. Aujourd’hui, c’est faux. Il est placé sous la double souveraineté d'Oman et de l'Iran mais la libre circulation y est, en théorie, garantie par une convention des Nations unies. Kahl, Colin H. "Not Time to Attack Iran: Why War Should Be a Last Resort". [16], On 8 July 2008, Ali Shirazi, a mid-level clerical aide to Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, was quoted by the student news agency ISNA as telling the Revolutionary Guards, "The Zionist regime is pressuring White House officials to attack Iran. Authorities were considering whether to reply, although the contents of the letter were not divulged. [5][dubious – discuss] In the local dialects of Hurmoz and Minab this strait is still called Hurmogh and has the aforementioned meaning. June 24th, 2019 Leo Malden No Comment News détroit d'Ormuz, Iran, United airlines, USA 907 views. Les États-Unis accusent l'Iran. Le président mauritanien, Ould Abdelaziz s’est attaqué au pouvoir en place du Qatar, en déclarant que ce pays a détruit les peuples et les pays arabes, en les infestant de terroristes et de terrorisme. On 14 January 2008, U.S. Navy officials appeared to contradict the Pentagon version of the 16 January event, in which the Pentagon had reported that U.S. vessels had almost fired on approaching Iranian boats. Jodocus Hondius labels the Strait Basora fretum ("Strait of Basra") on his 1606 map of the Ottoman Empire. It has a maximum capacity of around 2 million barrels per day, over three-quarters of the UAE's 2012 production rate. [62] Ratner, Michael. American Foreign Policy Interests, 2010, p. 64-74. To the left of the straits are great mountains called Asabon and to the right there rises in full view another round and high mountain called Semiramis; between them the passage across the strait is about six hundred stadia; beyond which that very great and broad sea, the Persian Gulf, reaches far into the interior. Nous respectons votre choix. info) Arabic: مَضيق هُرمُز‎‎ Maḍīq Hurmuz ) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Le détroit d'Ormuz, situé dans la zone où l'Iran a abattu un drone militaire américain, est un point de passage stratégique pour le commerce mondial de pétrole et au cœur des tensions régionales depuis des …

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