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According to a 2012 article in The Christian Science Monitor, it simulated an attempt by Iran to close the strait. Le détroit d’Ormuz, zone sous hautes tensions. [45], In 2020, France deployed about 600 troops at sea and in the air under the CTF474 to protect maritime trade, regional business, and to ease local tensions. [54], A 2008 article in International Security contended that Iran could seal off or impede traffic in the Strait for a month, and an attempt by the U.S. to reopen it would be likely to escalate the conflict. According to the officials, the anti-ship Fateh-110 Mod 3 flew over 100 miles on a flight path over the Strait of Hormuz to a test range in the Iranian desert. Nevertheless, Iran continued to discuss the impact of shutting the Strait on world oil markets, saying that any disruption of supply would cause a shock to markets that "no country" could manage. Nous le savons, la fin des années pétrole débouchera forcément sur une guerre. Cela représente environ 21 % de la consommation mondiale de pétrole et un tiers du brut transitant par voie maritime dans le monde. [63], • A significant fleet of small boats and manpower available, which can be used to manoeuvre around larger vessels in swarming (military) tactics. [40], On 22 April 2019, the U.S. ended the oil waivers, which allowed some of Iran’s customers to import Iranian oil, without risking financial penalties as part of the U.S. economic sanctions against Iran. Military and diplomatic officials still expected a strike as of 7 p.m. Thursday in retaliation for Iran shooting down an unmanned American drone. He indicated that tensions involving the Strait of Hormuz are leading those currently dependent on shipments from the Persian Gulf to find alternative shipping capabilities. The court ruling allegedly ordered a fine of $3.6 million. American Foreign Policy Interests, 2010. [70], In July 2012, the UAE began using the new Habshan–Fujairah oil pipeline from the Habshan fields in Abu Dhabi to the Fujairah oil terminal on the Gulf of Oman, effectively bypassing the Strait of Hormuz. Again, this had implication playing out in the Strait of Hormuz, as Iranian threats of Strait closure was put forward in April 2019. He also stated, "We've invested in capabilities to ensure that if that happens, we can defeat that. In the last week of July 2008, in the Operation Brimstone,[18] dozens of U.S. and foreign naval ships came to undergo joint exercises for possible military activity in the shallow waters off the coast of Iran. Enquête Depuis mai, cet étroit corridor maritime est l’un des points chauds de la planète. Respectivement capitale économique et politique notoires des Emirats, ce … [13] Iran limited the retaliatory attacks to Iraqi shipping, leaving the strait open.[13]. [10] In July 1972, Oman also expanded its territorial sea to 12 nautical miles (22 km) by decree. Ould Abdelaziz a expliqué que la Mauritanie avait rompu, il y quelques mois, ses relations diplomatiques avec l’Emirat, avant de les rétablir, à cause des nombreux intérêts économiques en jeu. [36], Maersk says they have agreed to pay an Iranian company $163,000 over a dispute about 10 container boxes transported to Dubai in 2005. [citation needed], The U.S. led sanctions may be "beginning to bite" as Iranian currency has recently lost some 12% of its value. Policy Focus, 2008. "[60], In May 2012, a learned article concluded that both the UNCLOS and the 1958 Convention on the High Seas would be violated if Iran followed through on its threat to block passage through the Straits of vessels such as oil tankers, and that the act of passage bears no relation in law to the imposition of economic sanctions. Les gardiens de la révolution, l’armée idéologique iranienne, contrôlent les opérations navales dans le Golfe. [10] Upon signing the convention in December 1982, Iran entered a declaration stating "that only states parties to the Law of the Sea Convention shall be entitled to benefit from the contractual rights created therein", including "the right of transit passage through straits used for international navigation". [12], The Tanker War phase of the Iran–Iraq War started when Iraq attacked the oil terminal and oil tankers at Iran's Kharg Island in early 1984. Ratner, Michael. [32], By 23 January, a flotilla had been established by countries opposing Iran's threats to close the Hormuz Strait. As of 11 August 2008, more than 40 U.S. and allied ships reportedly were en route to the Strait of Hormuz. Most notably, this includes the United States Fifth Fleet based in Bahrain, and the Al Udeid Air Base, housing troops from the United States Air Force[68][69], In June 2012, Saudi Arabia reopened the Iraq Pipeline through Saudi Arabia (IPSA), which was confiscated from Iraq in 2001 and travels from Iraq across Saudi Arabia to a Red Sea port. Le détroit d’Ormuz, situé dans la zone où l’Iran a abattu jeudi 20 juin un drone militaire américain, est un point de passage stratégique pour le commerce mondial de pétrole et au cœur des tensions régionales depuis des décennies. Les États-Unis accusent l'Iran. La fermeture du détroit d'Ormuz, ne serait-ce que pour une période de deux semaines, entraînerait des conséquences catastrophiques sur l'économie mondiale. Ould Abdelaziz a comparé le Qatar et ce qu’il a fait aux pays arabes à l’Allemagne Nazie et à ce qu’elle a occasionnée aux pays européens. On 14 January 2008, U.S. Navy officials appeared to contradict the Pentagon version of the 16 January event, in which the Pentagon had reported that U.S. vessels had almost fired on approaching Iranian boats. International Security, 2008. [citation needed], A 2007 report from the Center for Strategic and International Studies also stated that 17 million barrels passed out of the Persian Gulf daily, but that oil flows through the Strait accounted for roughly 40% of all world-traded oil. "Iran threatens to block Strait of Hormuz over US oil sanctions". Rezaei, Farhad. The resemblance of this word with the name of the Zoroastrian god هرمز Hormoz (a variant of Ahura Mazda) has resulted in the popular belief[citation needed][neutrality is disputed] that these words are related. Le mois suivant, des patrouilleurs iraniens tiraient des coups de semonce dans une apparente tentative d’interception d’un navire commercial battant pavillon singapourien. Iran subsequently denied the accusations, calling the incident a false-flag attack. Haghshenass, Fariborz. It provides the only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the open ocean and is one of the world's most strategically important choke points. "Iran will not repeat its warning...the enemy's carrier has been moved to the Gulf of Oman because of our drill. États-Unis/Iran : nouvelles tensions dans le détroit d'Ormuz Depuis jeudi 13 juin et l'attaque de deux pétroliers, les tensions sont vives dans le golfe d'Oman. This was presumed to be in reference to the seizure of an Iranian Tanker, Grace 1, bound for Syria in Gibraltar a few days prior. L’Iran a averti vendredi 21 juin qu’il défendrait son territoire contre d’éventuelles représailles des Etats-Unis, tandis que les compagnies aériennes KLM, Qantas, Singapore Airlines et Malaysia Airlines décidaient d’éviter désormais le survol du détroit d’Ormuz. Pham, J. Peter. Les tensions dans le détroit d’Ormuz ne devraient pas nous surprendre. Naval Projection and the Strait of Hormuz". [13] Saddam Hussein's aim in attacking Iranian shipping was, among other things, to provoke the Iranians to retaliate with extreme measures, such as closing the Strait of Hormuz to all maritime traffic, thereby bringing American intervention. I recommend and emphasize to the American carrier not to return to the Persian Gulf", he said. La présence de nombreuses îles – dont celle d’Ormuz qui a donné son nom au détroit – et la faible profondeur des eaux territoriales iraniennes, les obligent à emprunter, à l’entrée comme à la sortie, deux chenaux très étroits – de deux milles nautiques (3,7 km) chaque, séparés par une zone tampon de même largeur –, mais suffisants pour permettre le passage … In April 1959 Iran altered the legal status of the strait by expanding its territorial sea to 12 nautical miles (22 km) and declaring that it would recognize only transit by innocent passage through the newly expanded area. info) Arabic: مَضيق هُرمُز‎ ‎ Maḍīq Hurmuz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.It provides the only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the open ocean and is one of the world's most strategically important choke points. Economically, Iran would face consequences in terms of their own dependency on oil revenues and commerce through the Strait, such as medical products and food. Aljazeera. [24], The U.S. Navy spokesman Commander Bill Speaks quickly responded that deployment of U.S. military assets would continue as has been the custom stating: "The U.S. Navy operates under international maritime conventions to maintain a constant state of high vigilance in order to ensure the continued, safe flow of maritime traffic in waterways critical to global commerce. Daring, which is the lead ship of her class is one of the "most advanced warships" in the world, and will undertake its first mission in the Persian Gulf. Depuis l’arrivée du président Trump au pouvoir, la tension y est à son comble. Current Politics and Economics of the Middle East, 2018, p. 139-150. The battle, dubbed Operation Praying Mantis by the U.S., was launched in retaliation for the USS Samuel B. Roberts striking a mine laid in the channel by Iran on 14 April. "Closing Time: Assessing the Iranian Threat to the Strait of Hormuz". Sputnik France 33,279 views. En 2018, environ 21 millions de barils de brut y circulaient quotidiennement, selon l’Agence américaine de l’Energie (EIA). Iran’s fleet of small vessels, speedboats and submarines can be used for its rapid and covert mine-laying capabilities.[63]. These small attack crafts can be armed with machine guns, torpedoes and anti-ship missiles. U.S. forces sank one frigate, one gunboat, and up to six armed speedboats, as well as seriously damaging a second frigate. Entre l'Iran et les États-Unis, la guerre des nerfs se poursuit 01:38. [23], On 3 January 2012, Iran threatened to take action if the U.S. Navy moves an aircraft carrier back into the Persian Gulf. In May 1993, Iran enacted a comprehensive law on maritime areas, several provisions of which conflict with UNCLOS provisions, including a requirement that warships, submarines, and nuclear-powered ships obtain permission before exercising innocent passage through Iran's territorial waters.The United States does not recognize any of the claims by Oman and Iran and has contested each of them. [citation needed] [62], • Naval mine-laying capabilities. Aujourd’hui, c’est faux. On 28 April 2015, IRGCN patrol boats contacted the Marshall Islands-flagged container ship Maersk Tigris, which was westbound through the strait, and directed the ship to proceed further into Iranian territorial waters, according to a spokesman for the U.S. Defense Department. Même si c’était exagéré, cela avait un sens à l’époque. info) Arabic: مَضيق هُرمُز‎‎ Maḍīq Hurmuz ) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Principaux ports autour du détroit d’Ormuz. Iran’s use of its territorial advantages in the Strait of Hormuz is therefore more effective as a threat, than if a complete or partial closure of the Strait is actually executed. [1] On the north coast lies Iran, and on the south coast the United Arab Emirates and Musandam, an exclave of Oman. The flotilla included three American aircraft carriers (the USS Carl Vinson, the USS Enterprise and USS Abraham Lincoln) and three destroyers (USS Momsen, USS Sterett, USS Halsey), seven British warships, including the destroyer HMS Daring and a number of Type 23 frigates (HMS Westminster, HMS Argyll, HMS Somerset and HMS St Albans), and a French warship, the frigate La Motte-Picquet .[34]. Il a ajouté que le Qatar est le principal pourvoyeur de terroristes du le monde arabe. To traverse the Strait, ships pass through the territorial waters of Iran and Oman under the transit passage provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Au sommaire cette semaine, l'escalade militaire dans le détroit d'Ormuz. [63], • Kilo-class submarines and midget submarines. Escalada de tensión en el estrecho de Ormuz: Irán intercepta una aeronave 'espía' y EEUU le acusa de derribar uno de sus drones The United States Navy and United States Air Force in the Gulf region is far stronger than that of Iran, and while an Iranian attempt to close of the Strait can cause damage, the U.S. is able to defeat it. Additionally, a closing of the Strait would also have severe consequences for Iran itself. Le détroit d'Ormuz est stratégique dans le commerce maritime du pétrole. Jodocus Hondius labels the Strait Basora fretum ("Strait of Basra") on his 1606 map of the Ottoman Empire. Le détroit d'Ormuz, passage stratégique sous haute tension Vendredi 21 Juin 2019 - Par seo. "Iran's Threat to the Strait of Hormuz: A Realist Assessment". U.S. officials accused Iran of harassing and provoking their naval vessels, but Iranian officials denied the allegations. Le président mauritanien, Ould Abdelaziz s’est attaqué au pouvoir en place du Qatar, en déclarant que ce pays a détruit les peuples et les pays arabes, en les infestant de terroristes et de terrorisme. [20], On 27 December 2011, Iranian Vice President Mohammad-Reza Rahimi threatened to cut off oil supply from the Strait of Hormuz should economic sanctions limit, or cut off, Iranian oil exports. Upon ratifying UNCLOS in August 1989, Oman submitted declarations confirming its 1981 royal decree that only innocent passage is permitted through its territorial sea. June 24th, 2019 Leo Malden No Comment News détroit d'Ormuz, Iran, United airlines, USA 907 views. Iranian Threats to Close the Strait of Hormuz", "Transit Passage Rights in the Strait of Hormuz and Iran’s Threats to Block the Passage of Oil Tankers", VIDEO: Iran shoots down U.S. military drone over Strait of Hormuz, List of cities, towns and villages in Hormozgan Province, South Pars/North Dome Gas-Condensate field, National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company, DESA - Iran Heavy Diesel Manufacturing Company, Seizure of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Strait_of_Hormuz&oldid=994726380, Bodies of water of the United Arab Emirates, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles using infobox body of water without alt, Articles using infobox body of water without pushpin map alt, Articles using infobox body of water without image bathymetry, Articles with disputed statements from April 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2012, Articles with minor POV problems from April 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from September 2017, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2012, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mohammed Kookherdi (1997) Kookherd, an Islamic civil at Mehran river, third edition: Dubai, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 06:28. [51] In terms of the international opinion, the threat of closing the Strait can severely damage Iran’s relations to states who are engaging with them economically. Further pressure on Iranian currency was added by French Foreign Minister Alain Juppé who was quoted as calling for more "strict sanctions" and urged EU countries to follow the US in freezing Iranian central bank assets and imposing an embargo on oil exports. [52], Iran have a number of options regarding the threats of blocking the Strait of Hormuz. Again, this action would be a risk to energy-security, and the steady flow of oil through the strait. On 29 June 2008, the commander of Iran's Revolutionary Guard, Mohammad Ali Jafari, said that if either Israel or the United States attacked Iran, it would seal off the Strait of Hormuz to wreak havoc in the oil markets. Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta told troops in Texas that the United States would not tolerate Iran's closing of the strait. The strait is about 90 nautical miles (167 km) long, with a width varying from about 52 nautical miles (96 km) to 21 nautical miles (39 km). The UAE is also increasing Fujairah's storage and off-loading capacities. [16], On 8 July 2008, Ali Shirazi, a mid-level clerical aide to Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, was quoted by the student news agency ISNA as telling the Revolutionary Guards, "The Zionist regime is pressuring White House officials to attack Iran. On the north coast lies Iran, and on the south coast the United Arab Emirates and … [72] The Habshan – Fujairah route secures the UAE's energy security and has the advantage of being a ground oil pipeline transportation which is considered the cheapest form of oil transportation and also reduces insurance costs as oil tankers would no longer enter the Persian Gulf. Il est parsemé d’îles désertiques ou peu habitées, mais d’une grande importance stratégique : les îles iraniennes d’Ormuz, et celles de Qeshm et de Larak, face à la rive iranienne de Bandar Abbas. To the left of the straits are great mountains called Asabon and to the right there rises in full view another round and high mountain called Semiramis; between them the passage across the strait is about six hundred stadia; beyond which that very great and broad sea, the Persian Gulf, reaches far into the interior. This was said to represent 35% of the world's seaborne oil shipments and 20% of oil traded worldwide. Oct 6, 2017 - USS Thorn (DD-988) Spruance-class destroyer named for Lieutenant Jonathan Thorn, (1779-1811). L’équipage de l’« USS Vincennes » avait affirmé avoir pris l’Airbus pour un chasseur iranien animé d’intentions hostiles. Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, 2019, p. 7-24. La région du Golfe et du détroit d’Ormuz est une fois de plus au cœur de vives tensions géopolitiques, sur fond de bras de fer entre l’Iran et les Etats-Unis. Ces incidents intervennaient après ceux du mois de mai durant lesquels quatre navires, dont deux … One U.S. carrier battle group from Japan would complement the two which are already in the Persian Gulf, for a total of five battle groups, not including the submarines. Ainsi, le pétrole léger produit par les Etats-Unis n’est pas un substitut aux bruts lourds du Moyen-Orient. Saeed Kamali Dehghan. Plus de 500 navires avaient été détruits ou endommagés. Ne pas oublier que les USA sont auto-producteur de 80% de leur consommation de pétrole, ils sont plus gros producteur que l Arabie Saoudite et seront autosuffisants dans quelques années. "Iran's Military Capability: The Structure and Strength of Forces". [57][58], Captain John Kirby, a Pentagon spokesman, was quoted in a December 2011 Reuters article: "Efforts to increase tension in that part of the world are unhelpful and counter-productive. Le détroit d'Ormuz (en arabe : مضيق هرمز / Maḍīq Hurmuz ; en persan : تنگه هرمز / Tange-ye Hormoz) est un détroit reliant le golfe Persique au golfe d'Oman qui doit son nom à l'île iranienne Ormuz [1], située au sud-est de Bandar Abbas.Les pays frontaliers sont l'Iran au nord, le sultanat d'Oman (extrémité de la pointe sur la photo) et les Émirats arabes unis au sud (péninsule arabique). Regain de tension dans le détroit d’Ormuz. On August … Iranian Army chief Ataollah Salehi said the United States had moved an aircraft carrier out of the Persian Gulf because of Iran's naval exercises, and Iran would take action if the ship returned. Au lendemain de la destruction d'un drone par un navire américain au dessus du détroit d'Ormuz, Téhéran a «confisqué» un pétrolier britannique dans cette zone sous haute tension. (2) Harassment of tanker traffic and damage to the infrastructure, as it was seen in the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. It will have a capacity of 1.65 million barrels per day. bottom-moored contact mines; moored and bottom-influence mines; drifting mines and remotely controlled mines. [28], On 9 January 2012, Iranian Defense Minister Ahmad Vahidi denied that Iran had ever claimed that it would close the Strait of Hormuz, saying that "the Islamic Republic of Iran is the most important provider of security in the strait... if one threatens the security of the Persian Gulf, then all are threatened. "[70], Strait between the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, 2019 U.S.–Iran tensions and attacks on oil tankers, Iran's Anti-Access/Area-Denial capabilities. Détroit d’Ormuz : « Le monde entier a peur des sanctions américaines et de Trump » - Duration: 36:50. The Navy's regional commander, Vice Admiral Kevin Cosgriff, said the Iranians had "neither anti-ship missiles nor torpedoes" and he "wouldn't characterize the posture of the US 5th Fleet as afraid of these small boats".[15]. If they commit such a stupidity, Tel Aviv and U.S. shipping in the Persian Gulf will be Iran's first targets and they will be burned."[17]. Le détroit d’Ormuz reste la voie de navigation quasi exclusive reliant les producteurs d’hydrocarbures du Moyen-Orient (Arabie saoudite, Koweït, Qatar, Emirats arabes unis, Irak et Iran) aux marchés d’Asie, d’Europe et d’Amérique du nord. [37], In July 2018, Iran again made threats to close the strait. Commerce mondial : échanges de toute nature, aussi bien les produits manufacturés que les … [65] In 2010, Iran was estimated to have at least 2,000 moored and drifting contact mines from Soviet, Western and Iranian sources. However, closing the Strait of Hormuz, be it for a period of two weeks, would lead to catastrophic consequences for the global economy. Détroit d'Ormuz : il se situe dans le golfe Arabo-Persique, au Moyen-Orient. The Guardian, 2018. Une possibilité serait de commencer par le détroit d’Ormuz et d’entamer un dialogue avec tous les acteurs de cette région. [30] The United States had previously announced its intention to warn Iran that closing the Strait of Hormuz is a "red line" that would provoke an American response. "Traversing the Persian Gauntlet: U.S. [5][dubious – discuss] In the local dialects of Hurmoz and Minab this strait is still called Hurmogh and has the aforementioned meaning. Vice Admiral Kevin Cosgriff, commander of the U.S. 5th Fleet stationed in Bahrain across the Persian Gulf from Iran, warned that such Iranian action would be considered an act of war, and the U.S. would not allow Iran to hold hostage nearly a third of the world's oil supply. Gresh, Geoffrey. [41], Aljazeera quoted Major-General Mohammad Baqeri of the Iranian Armed Forces, stating "We are not after closing the Strait of Hormuz but if the hostility of the enemies increases, we will be able to do so". On 24 January, tensions rose further after the European Union imposed sanctions on Iranian oil. "[59], General Martin Dempsey, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said in January 2012 that Iran "has invested in capabilities that could, in fact, for a period of time block the Strait of Hormuz." | [41], On the morning of 13 June 2019, the oil tankers Front Altair and Kokuka Courageous were both rocked by explosions shortly before dawn, the crew of the latter reported seeing a flying object strike the ship; the crew were rescued by the destroyer USS Bainbridge while the crew of the Front Altair were rescued by Iranian ships. Citing looming American sanctions after the U.S withdrew from the JCPOA deal earlier in the year. To reduce the risk of collision, ships moving through the Strait follow a Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS): inbound ships use one lane, outbound ships another, each lane being two miles wide. The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, 2010, p. 41-56, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Center for Strategic and International Studies, USS Hartford and USS New Orleans collision, Navy of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, "How Iran Plans To Bypass The World's Main Oil Chokepoint", "Transit Passage Through International Straits", "The Strait of Hormuz is the world's most important oil transit chokepoint", "2 oil tankers were damaged in possible attacks in the Gulf of Oman", "Chronological lists of ratifications of, accessions and successions to the Convention and the related Agreements as at 26 October 2007", "Accession to the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea Is Unnecessary to Secure U.S. Navigational Rights and Freedoms", "Navy says speed of tanker sucked submarine up to surface", "U.S. Navy Commander Warns Iran: Don't Try Closing Gulf Oil Passageway", "Iran to "hit Tel Aviv, U.S. ships" if attacked", "JTFEX 08-4 "Operation Brimstone" Flexes Allied Force Training", "Three major US naval strike forces due this week in Persian Gulf", "U.S. Navy vessels in Bahrain for evaluation after collision", "Oil jumps over 2% as Iran threatens supplies", "US warns Iran over threat to block oil route", "Oil falls on dollar's rise, Wall Street pullback", "Iran threatens U.S. Navy as sanctions hit economy", "Iran nuclear crisis: Sanctions 'beginning to bite, "State Department: Iran is feeling the pressure - Yahoo!

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